Newcastle upton Tine: Cambridge Scholars. Lingua franca 1. [11] In other words, communicative efficiency (i.e. It is likely that ELF, like any other natural language, will turn out to vary, and to change over time. Zeitschrift für interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Breiteneder, Angelika Maria. Applying nonverbal cues was seen as being of importance to encourage simulated patients to express concerns, because silence may be interpreted as a sign of potential problems. [Print version of Breiteneder 2005.]. ELF is used most often between non-native speakers of English but this fact does not mean that native speakers are excluded from ELF communication. Definition and Examples of a Lingua Franca, Foreign Language Requirement for College Admissions, Key Events in the History of the English Language, New Englishes: Adapting the Language to Meet New Needs, The "Inner Circle" of the English Language, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. The lingua franca role of English, coupled with its status as the official language of ASEAN, has important implications for language policy and language education. Most importantly, proponents of this view reject the idea that emerging insights into how English is used as a lingua franca can provide useful input with regard to the aims and methods of English language teaching. It is a significant element to foster bridges gap and connects people around the globe. It comes from the author whose book "The Phonology of English as an International Language" spear-headed the English as a Lingua Franca movement - a challenge to assumptions, bias and asymmetry held within native-speaker English standards in EFL pedagogy and growing non-native speaker dominated contexts of English use. this alone made it inevitable that English would eventually become, as it did, the lingua franca of this planet, for it is thereby the richest and most flexible. “Exploiting redundancy in English as a European Lingua Franca”. This chapter will begin with a brief historical review of languages which have operated as lingua francas across East and Southeast Asia. [47][48][49] This leads to linear connections between intention, behaviour, culture, etc., and English usages, which can be false lines of corrolation. 2005. “’I don’t think I should learn all this.’ – A Longitudinal View of Attitudes Towards ‘Native Speaker’ English.” In: Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke. English has not become the global ‘lingua franca’ as a result of colonialism or soft power initiatives. This can be explained by reference . Negotiating culture in English as a lingua franca.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Vienna. Whilst recognising Cogo's clarifications regarding several misconceptions of ELF, Sewell also points out and discusses some of the questions Cogo's article arises. Lastly, Cogo contests Sowden's view on ELF researchers themselves. 2002. “From chaos to the smallest common denominator. 2005. “The role of speakers' first and other languages in English as a lingua franca talk.” Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Vienna. English as a lingua franca. Did you require someone to translate for you? British linguist Jennifer Jenkins points out that ELF is not a new phenomenon. Frankfurt am Main et al. : Peter Lang, 163-194. [15]. Have you ever tried to communicate with someone who doesn't speak your language? [13] Speakers accommodate to each other's cultural backgrounds and may also use code-switching into other languages that they know. Spichtinger, Daniel. Although most contemporary linguists regard English as a lingua franca (ELF) as a valuable means of international communication and worthwhile object of study, some have challenged its value and the idea that ELF is a distinct variety of English at all. Generally, a lingua franca is a third language that is distinct from the native language of both parties involved in the communication. Hülmbauer, Cornelia et al. Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke (eds.). (2010). English, he suggests, will be the last lingua franca. ELF is "defined functionally by its use in intercultural communication rather than formally by its reference to native-speaker norms"[3] whereas English as a second or foreign language aims at meeting native speaker norms and gives prominence to native speaker cultural aspects. Firth, Alan. Spoken ELF contains a huge amount of linguistic variation and non-standard forms (although formal written ELF tends to resemble ENL to a much greater extent)," (Mackenzie 2014). Oxford: Routledge. As far as Marko Modiano is concerned, there are two ways to approach deciding who English is a lingua franca for. Mollin, Sandra. Dewey argues that even though Sewell's article is meant to be a critique of ELF, several of his ‘non-essentialist’ views on language are compatible with those of Cogo and other ELF researchers, thus undermining his argument. her relation to English after World War II. Firth, Alan. Sometimes as the language becomes more widespread, the native populations of an area will speak the lingua franca to each other as well. [18][19][20][21] Recent linguistic discussions by ELF experts treat the interactants' cultural and linguistic background as a factor influencing language performance. Euro English. English language has replaced French as the lingua franca of diplomacy since World War II. 2005. “Exploring the third space. It will be argued that the role of English in Asia has now extended beyond operating at intranational level, as evidenced by the existence of established varieties of … For Sowden, the use of multilingual and local teachers can also be beneficial for L2 learners, as these teachers have knowledge of the local culture and spoken languages and the constraints they have on learning English. Lesznyák, Ágnes. English as a Lingua Franca: Theorizing and Teaching English. English in European integration and globalization.” World Englishes 27: 2, 250-267. Vienna Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE). "As well as being used—often in a very simple form—by tourists, ELF is prominent in international politics and diplomacy, international law, business, the media, and in tertiary education and scientific research—which Yamuna Kachru and Larry Smith (2008: 3) call ELF's 'mathetic function'—so it is clearly not a reduced lingua franca in the term's original (Frankish) sense," notes Ian Mackenzie before going on to elaborate on the ways in which this application of English differs from native English. Pölzl, Ulrike. English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language "as a global means of inter-community communication" (Seidlhofer 2016: 20) and can be understood as "any use of English among speakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicative medium of choice and often the only option " (Seidlhofer 2011: 7). Geburtstag. to the 'identity--communication continuum.' [24][25], Most data on ELF interactions has been drawn from the domains of business and higher education,[26] and that in largely European contexts, perhaps factors accounting for the relatively rare instances of miscommunication. 2008 “Introducing English as a lingua franca (ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication.” Synergies Europe 3, 25-36. Ferguson, Gibbson. One of the key aspects of terminology used in the ELF field of enquiry is that a standardized version of any English variety is not implied, with the dynamic, situated and complex nature of language brought to the fore. First, she argues that ELF is not one monolithic or single variety, but rather that it is used by highly varied socio-/linguacultural networks which leads to a more fluid use of the language building on the different ways in which people use a language to communicate with each other. Meierkord, Christiane. : from Italian, literally ‘Frankish tongue’. The ‘habitat factor’ in English as a lingua franca interactions.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 177, 151-17. Empathic doctor-patient communication then means not only mean understanding and sympathizing but having the ability to bridge the gap when patients are not willing to talk. 2009. “'We should not wake up any dogs': Idiom and metaphor in ELF.”. For Hülmbauer, for instance, “it seems likely that the ELF users develop their own markers of identity (be they a common 'European' or 'international' nature or more individual ones which are created online, depending on the community of practice they are emerging).”[22] In this view, ELF is multicultural rather than culture-free. A lingua franca is a language which is used as a means of communication among people who have no native language in common. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is English when it is used by non-native speakers to communicate with native speakers. Prescriptivists (generally non-linguists) tend to dismiss ELF as a kind of foreigner talk or what has been disparagingly called BSE—"bad simple English." On 'lingua franca' English and conversation analysis.” Journal of Pragmatics 26, 237–59, qtd. MacKenzie, Ian. Berlin: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. Maybe you could create some kind of other language using bits of both languages. Breiteneder, Angelika. Knapp, Karlfried; Meierkord, Christiane (eds.). Barbara Seidlhofer. 2005. “Exploring the third space. English is the largest of human tongues, with several times the vocabulary of the second largest language. The choice of a language that becomes a lingua franca, so merely the language of communication between people who do not share a common native language of communication ( Richards, Platt, & Weber, 1985), is always linked with many socio-cultural, and probably, more importantly, political reasons. Timmis, Ivor. [53] "Global Englishes" (GEs) is generally seen to align closely with ELF,[54][55] seeing that language use is variable and is very much intermingled with cultural flows, situated contextualisation, and complex interactional alignment between people; whereas the other terms mentioned above tend to be seen as more linguistic in nature (e.g., "'Globish", proposing forms of simplified English needed for communication, vs. ELF and GEs, describing what people actually do when communicating [simple or not]; and "World Englishes", generally accounting for language features and commonalities by region/group, vs. ELF, looking at situated communicative use of English). Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language) 2(1), 92–119. "English operates as a lingua franca at a number of different levels, including local, national, regional and international. For example, there are claims that variationist discourses have entered into some ELF accounts, creating too much emphasis on accounting for language forms and authenticating them numerically, rather than considering all the contextual factors and variations that constitute communicative practices across ELF settings. 2018. English as a lingua franca in Europe. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press, 298-322. Englishes in Practice, Issue 1, 3-17. From pragmatic motives to lexico-grammatical innovation.” Nordic Journal of English Studies. It is well known that divisions between languages are arbitrary, and therefore those between varieties of a language have to be as well. The Globalisation of English and the English language classroom. Language Policy Division. Colin Sowden (2012)[43] opened the debate with a paper in which he discusses which version of English to teach to second language (L2) learners. Mortensen, J. He argues that some ELF scholars want ELF to replace Standard English as the model to be used in learning English. London: Routledge. The way forward according to Sowden is to focus on communicative ability, not on universal conformity. 1 LINGUA-FRANCA Iffatara Nargis STD No- Department of English Green University Bangladesh 2. Is it a lingua franca or common language only for non-native speakers that speak it as a foreign language or for those that use it in multicultural settings? Notes on English used as a lingua franca as an object of study. 2001. “Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11: 2, 133-158. Critical Concepts in Linguistics. The Spread of English and its Appropriation. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, vol. Arbingdon, UK: Routledge. English as a Lingua Franca in Europe Today English is widely regarded as the most widespread lingua franca in the world and this is also true in Europe: English has become an intrinsic part of the European linguistic landscape and it constitutes an With English acting as an international language, it enables people who do not share a common native language to interact. English as a lingua franca in the international University: The Politics of Academic English Language Policy. English, she says, "has served as a lingua franca in the past, and continues to do so nowadays, in many of the countries that were colonized by the British from the late sixteenth century on (often known collectively as the Outer Circle following Kachru 1985), such as India and Singapore. Arbingdon, UK: Routledge. "... [ELF] usually differs from English as a native language (ENL), the language used by NESs [native English speakers]. Seidlhofer, Barbara; Widdowson, Henry G. 2003. “House work and student work. DOI:10.1080/13556509.2013.10798856. (2013). 2008 "Introducing English as a lingua franca (ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication." 2013. [4] While lingua francas have been used for centuries, what makes ELF a novel phenomenon is the extent to which it is used in spoken,[5] written[6] and in computer-mediated communication. 13 May 2017 2013. 2004. “Research Perspectives on teaching English as a Lingua Franca.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24, 209-239. The way English is used as a lingua franca is heavily dependent on the specific situation of use. 2006. “Towards making ‘Euro-English’ a linguistic reality.” In: Bolton, Kinglsey; Kachru, Braj B. (eds.) Dewey[46] (2013) criticises Sewell's critical position on the debate, showing how it lacks substance and largely misrepresents the field. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) is English when it is used between two or more people who do not have the same first language. Major technological advances in the 21st century have enabled instant global communication, thus breaking the barriers of space and time between different locations on the planet. English, as a language, open doors of opportunities for students to enable them to reach their goals and dreams. 2009. “The lingua franca factor.” Intercultural pragmatics 6: 2, 147-170. Because of the use of English as a lingua franca in international trade and intercultural communication, native speakers of English are outnumbered by non-native speakers, which is a situation that is quite atypical for western European languages. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English,, "TEFL Interviews 4: Henry Widdowson & Barbara Seidlhofer on English as a Lingua Franca", Understanding English as a Lingua Franca: A Complete Introduction to the Theoretical Nature and Practical Implications of English used as a Lingua Franca. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 118-131. 17:6, 485-596. 2003. “A concept of international English and related issues: From ‘Real English’ to ‘Realistic English’?” In: Council of Europe. He claims that Cogo's approach is too essentialist, because her definition of ELF is based on language features. He disagrees with the definition of ELF being based on a distinction between non-native and native language use. Pölzl, Ulrike. 2000. Negotiating culture in English as a lingua franca.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Vienna. English has become a lingua franca in many parts of the world. And that may well be the biggest challenge for ELFE in the 21st century. The French – whose language was the last viable alternative in the race to become the world’s lingua franca – are understandably sore about the triumph of English. This early lingua franca featured the use of invariant forms of nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Grau, Maike. Baird, Robert, Baker, Will and Kitazawa, Mariko (2014). [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Breiteneder argues that learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) often have an integrative motivation for learning and using English since they wish to identify with the culture and values of English native speakers. Discover grammar tips, writing help, and fun English language facts. Adolphs, Svenja. Sewell then considers the implications of the ELF debate for ELT professionals and learners of English, and he highlights the importance of acknowledging language variation when teaching and learning English. 2, No. 2002. “Native speaker norms and international English: a classroom view.” ELT Journal 56, 240-249. getting the message across) is more important than correctness. Lingua franca communication. 2009. “The lingua franca factor.” Intercultural pragmatics 6: 2, 147-170. p.161-163. [12] As a consequence, ELF interactions are very often hybrid. When used for international communication, on the other hand, speakers will consciously avoid the use of local and nativised norms and expressions," (Kirkpatrick 2007). Regarding the criticism of ELF and variety building, some claim that ELF research has inherited the legacies of traditional linguistics, which contain some obstacles when considering language use in context. 2006. “In and on their own terms. . Besides, English Language operates as the lingua franca of this new millennium. The origin of the term “Lingua Franca” is traced back to the Middle Ages when it was used to describe a language or jargon used around the eastern Mediterranean by traders and Crusaders. In telling the story of a woman who, like her, is a transgender Filipina, Sandoval encompasses not just the complicated issue of sexual identity but also the dangers of being an immigrant in Trump’s America.
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